Question: What is CD31 a marker for?

CD31, also known as platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule 1 (PECAM-1), is thought to be a sensitive and specific marker for vascular differentiation. 1,2. It is a transmembrane glycoprotein expressed by endothelial cells and a variety of hematopoietic cells.

What is CD31 used for?

In immunohistochemistry, CD31 is used primarily to demonstrate the presence of endothelial cells in histological tissue sections. This can help to evaluate the degree of tumor angiogenesis, which can imply a rapidly growing tumor.

Is CD31 a surface marker?

In this study, we examined the role of CD31 as a cell surface marker for subsets of human CD4 cells. CD31, as defined by a newly developed mAb termed anti-1F11, can divide activated as well as resting CD4 cells into distinct functional subpopulations, based on its surface expression.

What is CD31 and CD34?

CD34 is one of the Endothelial Cell Differentiation Markers and Endothelial Progenitor Cell Markers. CD31 is normally found on endothelial cells, platelets, macrophages and Kupffer cells, granulocytes, T / NK cells, lymphocytes, megakaryocytes, osteoclasts, neutrophils.

Do all endothelial cells express CD31?

CD31 is expressed on platelets and on most leukocytes and is constitutively present on endothelial linings in vivo.

What does Pecam 1 bind to?

PECAM expressed by leukocytes can bind either to PECAM expressed by endothelial cells (homotypic binding), or to an alternative ligand such as the integrin αvβ3 (heterotypic binding). Studies with blocking antibodies suggest a critical role for PECAM-1 during neutrophil transendothelial migration in vitro and in vivo.

What does E selectin bind to?

E-selectin recognizes and binds to sialylated carbohydrates present on the surface proteins of certain leukocytes. E-selectin ligands are expressed by neutrophils, monocytes, eosinophils, memory-effector T-like lymphocytes, and natural killer cells.

Do immune cells express CD31?

Signaling by means of CD31 is induced by homophilic engagement during the interactions of immune cells and is mediated by phosphatase recruitment or activation through immunoreceptor tyrosine inhibitory motifs (ITIMs) that are located in its cytoplasmic tail.

What is CD34 positive?

CD34 is a transmembrane glycoprotein expressed on early lymphohematopoietic stem cells, progenitor cells, and endothelial cells. In normal conditions, CD34-positive cells account for about 1–2% of the total bone marrow cells. The TdT+ subset of precursor B cells (hematogones) is also positive for CD34.

What does CD34 stand for?

CD34 derives its name from the cluster of differentiation protocol that identifies cell surface antigens. CD34 was first described on hematopoietic stem cells independently by Civin et al. and Tindle et al. as a cell surface glycoprotein and functions as a cell-cell adhesion factor.

Is Pecam an integrin?

CD31/PECAM-1 is a ligand for alpha v beta 3 integrin involved in adhesion of leukocytes to endothelium.

Is E-selectin a cytokine?

9.9. Cytokine-activated endothelial cells express E-selectin, which binds PSGL-1 [314, 338], CD44 [339, 340], and other, unidentified ligands [338–342]. Like PSGL-1, other E-selectin ligands are heavily dependent on glycosylation by fucosyl transferase-VII and at least one sialyltransferase [343].

What does E-selectin stand for?

endothelial-leukocyte adhesion molecule 1 E-selectin, also known as CD62 antigen-like family member E (CD62E), endothelial-leukocyte adhesion molecule 1 (ELAM-1), or leukocyte-endothelial cell adhesion molecule 2 (LECAM2), is a selectin cell adhesion molecule expressed only on endothelial cells activated by cytokines.

What is CD56 marker?

CD56 is the archetypal phenotypic marker of natural killer cells but can actually be expressed by many more immune cells, including alpha beta T cells, gamma delta T cells, dendritic cells, and monocytes.

Do neutrophils express CD31?

Neutrophils lose CD31 surface expression after in vitro transendothelial migration or extravasation in human skin transplanted to severe combined immunodeficiency mice. A lack of CD31 signalling enhances T-cell activation10 and increases T-cell infiltration to atherosclerotic arteries.

What is a normal CD34 count?

Under normal conditions, CD34+ cells in PB range from 0.01 to 0.05%5; in the BM, the concentration is usually less than 1% of normal mononuclear cells.5, 6, 7, 8 The number of progenitor cells to be infused to reach a proper hematopoietic recovery is still controversial,9, 10 however a minimum of 2–5 × 106 CD34+ cells/ ...

Is CD34 positive bad?

Because all cells with colony forming potential (a classic in vitro assay of stem-cell activity) are found in the CD34-positive fraction of bone marrow, CD34 has been used as a convenient positive selection marker for HSC.

What does CD34 give rise to?

CD34 is commonly used as a marker of both human and mouse muscle satellite cells, also known as muscle stem cells 16,70. Muscle satellite cells are small, stromal progenitor cells that give rise to mature skeletal muscle cells.

What does PECAM-1 bind to?

PECAM expressed by leukocytes can bind either to PECAM expressed by endothelial cells (homotypic binding), or to an alternative ligand such as the integrin αvβ3 (heterotypic binding). Studies with blocking antibodies suggest a critical role for PECAM-1 during neutrophil transendothelial migration in vitro and in vivo.

What do e selectins bind to?

All selectins are single-chain transmembrane glycoproteins that share similar properties to C-type lectins due to a related amino terminus and calcium-dependent binding. Selectins bind to sugar moieties and so are considered to be a type of lectin, cell adhesion proteins that bind sugar polymers.

Where is E-selectin found?

It mediates the rolling of leukocytes on the activated endothelium surrounding an inflamed tissue. Both ESL-1 and PSGL-1 should bear sialyl Lewis a/x in order to bind E/P-selectins. E-selectin is found to mediate the adhesion of tumor cells to endothelial cells, by binding to E-selectin ligands on the tumor cells.

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